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Assessment of visual performance in relation to macular pigment density in human vision |

PURPOSE: Macular pigment (MP) is found in diurnal primate specieswhen vision spans a large range of ambient illumination and is mediated by cone and rod photoreceptors. Rods exhibit large spatial summation generating more sluggish responses. Rod and cone signals combine in the mesopic range and this can contribute to reduced contrast acuity and poor spatial/temporal resolution.

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Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions. | April 2008

PURPOSE: Many parameters of visual performance (e.g., contrast sensitivity) are compromised under glaring light conditions. Recent data indicate that macular pigment (MP) is strongly related to improvements in glare disability and photostress recovery based on a filtering mechanism. In this study, we assessed the causality of this relation by supplementing lutein and zeaxanthin for 6 months while measuring MP, glare disability, and photostress recovery.

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Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, an Ancillary Study of the Women's Health Initiative. | March 2008

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between nuclear cataract (determined from slitlamp photographs between May 2001 and January 2004) and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in patients between 1994 and 1998 and macula between 2001 and 2004. DESIGN: A total of 1802 women aged 50 to 79 years in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Oregon with intakes

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Plasma Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Other Carotenoids as Modifiable Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy and Cataract: The POLA Study | June 2006

PURPOSE: To assess the associations of plasma lutein and vigrx plus results zeaxanthin and other carotenoids with the risk of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and cataract in the population-based Pathologies Oculaires Lie´es a` l’Age (POLA) Study.

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Cataract is a self-defence reaction to protect the retina from oxidative damage | February 2011

Cataract is an age related disease. The lens becomes progressivelyopaque and more yellow, causing an increase in lightabsorption in the 300–500 nm range, thus diminishing our perceptionof violet and blue light [1–3]. An estimated 20.5 million (17%)Americans older than 40 years have cataract in either eye and 6.1million (5%) have had cataracts extracted..

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Studies on the singlet oxygen scavenging mechanism of human macular pigment | October 2010

Macular pigment (MP) was first described as a ‘‘yellow spot” centered on the fovea of the human eye in the 18th century, and it was classified spectroscopically as a xanthophyll carotenoid by Wald in 1945 [1], but it was not until 1985 that Bone and Landrum chemically identified that the macular pigment is a mixture of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin [2]. Macular pigment is diffusely found in the peripheral retina, but it is highly concentrated (100- fold) in health care reform who pays for cialis the foveal region of the macula, often exceeding a peak value of 1 mM in many humans [3–7]. In addition to spatial specificity, there is also remarkable chemical specificity of uptake into the human macula. Despite over a dozen readily detectable carotenoids found in human serum, only lutein, zeaxanthin, and their metabolites are found in the retina. In the fovea, the ratio of (3R,30R,60R)-lutein to (3R,30R)-zeaxanthin to (3R,30S-meso)-zeaxanthin is 1:1:1, while in the peripheral retina, lutein predominates over the zeaxanthins by a 3:1:0 ratio [1,6,8].

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A genetic approach to stratification of risk for age-related macular degeneration | January 2010

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in Canada, affecting primarily older individuals. Aging of the ‘baby boomers’’ is expected to more than double the number of Canadians 65 years of age or older to just over 9 million in 2031. This trend is also expected to double the number of Canadians with AMD from the population affected currently: 1 million with early AMD, 250 000 with advanced AMD, and 64 200 with blindness due to AMD.y.

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Antioxidant potential of meso-zeaxanthin a semi synthetic carotenoid | August 2009

Semi synthetic carotenoid meso-zeaxanthin was evaluated for its antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo. Mesozeaxanthin was found to scavenge superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and inhibited in vitro lipid peroxidation. Concentrations needed for 50% inhibition (IC50) were 27.0, 3.5 and 3.2 μg/ml, respectively. It scavenged 2,2-azobis- 3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6-sulphonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radicals and IC50 were 46.5, 6.25 μg/ml, respectively. It also scavenged nitric oxide radicals and IC50 was found to be 2.2 μg/ml. Oral administration of mesozeaxanthin inhibited superoxide radicals generated in macrophages by 25.2%, 50.1% and 67.2% at doses of 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg b.wt., respectively. One month oral administration of meso-zeaxanthin to mice significantly increased catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione reductase levels in blood and liver. Levels of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were also found to be increased in the liver, in a dose dependent manner. These results showed that meso-zeaxanthin has significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo.

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Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions. | April 2008

PURPOSE: Many parameters of visual performance (e.g., contrast sensitivity) are compromised under glaring light conditions. Recent data indicate that macular pigment (MP) is strongly related to improvements in glare disability and photostress recovery based on a filtering mechanism.

                                                                                                                                 Click Here to Read More                                                                                                                         

Macular Pigment Optical Density and Photophobia | February 2004

PURPOSE: Two carotenoids regularly consumed in the human diet, lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), accumulate in the central retina. Retinal L and Z, collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP), may protect the retina from free radical insult and photostress by acting as antioxidants and a short–wavelength filter. The light filtering properties of MP may also attenuate photophobia (

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Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables | February 2011

PURPOSE:The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed.

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Genetic testing can provide early detection of macular degeneration, and possibly save patients’ vision | February 2011

A FEW YEARS AGO, Gary Hermsdorf learned he was in the early stages of age-related macular degeneration. A leading cause of blindness for those 55 and older that xanex vs ativan affects more than 10 million Americans, macular degeneration is caused by deterioration of the central portion of the retina, known as the macula, and characterized by loss of central vision, according to the American Macular Degeneration Foundation.

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Meso-zeaxanthin: a cutting-edge carotenoid | June 2004

Current evidence demonstrates that the carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and mesozeaxanthin are readily bioavailable and if supplemented will effectively increase macular pigment levels. The distinction between each remains a focus of research in many labs. John T Landrum, PhD, and Richard A Bone, PhD, investigate

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Genetic Testing for AMD -Research Review| February 2011

A 75 year old white mail recently presented to the office with bilateral drusen and mild retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) changes, but no opbvious hemorrhage or fluid. HIs vision still measured 20/25 O.U., and optical coherence tomography revealed just small modulation within the RPE that was associated with the drusen.

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Studies on the singlet oxygen scavenging mechanism of human macular pigment | October 2010

Macular pigment (MP) was first described as a ‘‘yellow spot” centered on the fovea of the human eye in the 18th century, and it was classified spectroscopically as a xanthophyll carotenoid by Wald in 1945 [1], but it was not until 1985 that Bone and Landrum chemically identified that the macular pigment is a mixture of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin [2]. Macular pigment is diffusely found in the peripheral retina, but it is highly concentrated (100- fold) in the foveal region of the macula, often exceeding a peak value of 1 mM in many humans [3–7]. In addition to spatial specificity, there is also remarkable chemical specificity of uptake into the human macula. Despite over a dozen readily detectable carotenoids found in human serum, only lutein, zeaxanthin, and their metabolites are found in the retina. In the fovea, the ratio of (3R,30R,60R)-lutein to (3R,30R)-zeaxanthin to (3R,30S-meso)-zeaxanthin is 1:1:1, while in the peripheral retina, lutein predominates over the zeaxanthins by a 3:1:0 ratio [1,6,8].

                                                                                                                                 Click Here to Read More                                                                                                                          

Macular Pigment Optical Density in an Aging Irish Population: the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing | 2010

PURPOSE:The 3 carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso - zeaxanthin, which account for the ‘yellow spot’ at the macula and which are referred to as macular pigment (MP), are believed to play a role in levitra cam visual function and protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) via their optical and antioxidant properties. This study was undertaken to compare MP optical density (MPOD) in a population aged 1 50 years with MPOD values from a normative database of subjects aged 18–60 years.

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Resolution of macular drusen following supplementation with mesozeaxanthin | 

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blind registration in people over 50 years of age in the developed world. Late AMD results in loss of central and colour vision, with consequential difficulty in performing fine-detail visual tasks such as reading, driving, and recognizing faces, therefore impacting greatly on one+s independence and quality of life. It is estimated that late AMD affects more than 1.75 million individuals in the United States, and this figure is expected to rise to almost 3 million by 2020.1

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Genetic Advancements in AMD:
A Glimpse at the Future -page 18| November 2010

Anti-VEGF therapy is the current standard of care for the treatment of wet AMD. But, even as remarkable as anti-VEGF treatment is, there are some drawbacks. Fortunately, current and ongoing genetic research has helped us to better understand the intricate disease processes associated with dry AMD development. In the very near future, these findings may ultimately lead to the production of several cutting-edge pharmaceutical agents that specifically target the genes responsible for macular degeneration.

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Macular Pigment Optical Density in an Aging Irish Population: the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing | 2010

PURPOSE:The 3 carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso - zeaxanthin, which account for the ‘yellow spot’ at the macula and which are referred to as macular pigment (MP), are believed to play a role in viagra equivalent visual function and protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) via their optical and antioxidant properties. This study was undertaken to compare MP optical density (MPOD) in a population aged 1 50 years with MPOD values from a normative database of subjects aged 18–60 years.

                                                                                                                                 Click Here to Read More                                                                                                                          

Augmentation of Macular Pigment Following Supplementation with All Three Macular
Carotenoids: An Exploratory Study | 2010

PURPOSE: At the macula, the carotenoids meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), lutein (L), and zeaxanthin (Z) are
collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). This study was designed to measure serum and
macular responses to a macular carotenoid formulation.

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LANDMARK RESEARCH SHOWS LUTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION MAY REVERSE SYMPTOMS OF MACULAR DEGENERATION | April 2004

Nutritional antioxidant supplement lutein may be an effective approach in improving symptoms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss among older Americans. The LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial) is the first trial to record actual improvement in several key visual functions among patients with AMD. The data appears in this week’s Optometry – The Journal of the American Optometric Association.

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Targeting AMD with a Critical Carotenoid | March 2011

The role of nutrition, including carotenoid intake is receiving increasing attention for its potential in preventing age-related macular degeneration. This article will explore the science behind mesozeaxanthin, one of the macular carotenoids that is showing remarkable potential. Exciting new research at the University of Utah Medical School reveals that the protective effect of the combination of meso-zeanthin (MZ) with lutien and zeanthin is more potent than any of these carotenoidsindividually.

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Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration | June 2003

PURPOSE:To investigate the relation between plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and age-related macular degeneration in a group of elderly men and women.

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Dietary Antioxidants and the Long-term Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration | Januray 2010

PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between baseline dietary and supplement intakes of antioxidants and
the long-term risk of incident age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

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Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin | May 2007

BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease with multiple risk factors, many of which appear to involve oxidative stress. Macular pigment, with its antioxidant and lightscreening properties, is thought to be protective against AMD. A result has been the appearance of dietary supplements containing the macular carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin. More recently, a supplement has been marketed containing, in addition, the third major carotenoid of the macular pigment, meso-zeaxanthin. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of such a supplement in raising macular pigment density in human subjects.

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Introduction to genetic epidemiology | Januray 2010

Why should a practicing optometrist be interested in genetic epidemiology? Its very name, a combination of 2 disciplines, suggests a narrow academic niche with no obvious relevance for day-to-day work. The importance of the subject is reflected by the regularity with which genetic epidemiologic stories make headlines. Stories abound about the latest gene to be discovered that increases the risk of a disease, or that ‘‘causes’’ a trait like criminal tendency.

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Sunlight Exposure, Antioxidants, and Age-Related Macular Degeneration | October 2008

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of sunlight exposure and antioxidant level with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

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The Relationship of Dietary Carotenoid and Vitamin A, E, and C Intake With Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Case-Control Study | September 2007

OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the relationship of dietary carotenoids, vitamin A, alpha-tocopherol, and vitamin C with prevalent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS).

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